Regardless of the fact that thousands of people report successful use of essential oils, traditional medical neighborhood tries to dismiss their claims.
In this article we will simply reference scientific studies and let you be the judge for yourself.
Essential oils are everywhere; if you follow any blogs, you will certainly find them in DIY, survival, natural health, and mom blog sites.
So do essential oils truly work, or are they simply costly great smelling quackery?
Essential oils bring the physical real properties of flowers and plants in an extremely focused type. Through the various processes of purification, the unpredictable constituents of the plant's oil are removed from its flowers, leaves, branches, or roots. Essential oils bring biologically active volatile compounds in a very focused type that show therapeutic benefits in extremely small amounts.
The most common groups of chemical components found in essential oils are terpenes, alcohols, esters, ketones, aldehydes, and phenols.
The majority of essential oils are anti-bacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant. The antioxidant value in some essential oils alone is definitely incredible, simply an ounce of Clove Oil has the antioxidant capability of 450 lbs of carrots, 120 quarts of blueberries, or 48 gallons of beet juice.
There are three types of terpenes containes in essential oils: Phenylpropanoids (also called Hemiterpenes), Monoterpenes, and Sesquiterpenes.
Phenylpropanoids: Create conditions hostile to germs, viruses, and fungis. They are discovered in Clove (90 %), Cassia (80 %), Basil (75 %), Cinnamon (73 %), Oregano (60 %), Anise (50 %), Peppermint (25 %). Most significantly, phenylpropanoids clean the receptor websites on the cells. Without clean receptor websites, cells can not interact, and the body malfunctions, leading to conditions.
Monoterpenes: They are discovered in many essential oils. While offering a variety of healing apartments, the most crucial capability of the monoterpenes is that they can reprogram miswritten information in the cellular memory. With inappropriate coding in the DNA, cells breakdown and conditions result.
Sesquiterpenes: Found in Cedarwood (98 %), Vetiver (97 %), Spikenard (93 %), Sandalwood (Aloes) 90 %, Black Pepper (74 %), Patchouli (71 %), Myrrh (62 %), and Ginger (59 %), Frankincense (8 %), these particles provide oxygen to your tissues.
Fact: Viruses and bacteria have a tough time enduring in an oxygenated environment. Sesquiterpenes may also eliminate or deprogram miswritten codes in the DNA.
Germs have actually shown that they can mutate to form different type of resistant stress of "superbugs" to adjust to the poisonous antibiotic drugs. Essential oils have never developed a superbug. There have actually been numerous researches clinically showing their efficiency versus basically all germs, including superbugs.
Essential oils have actually been revealed to have antibacterial properties against drug-resistant germs. According to research provided at the Society for General Microbiology's spring conference in Edinburgh, the essential oils of thyme and cinnamon were found to be especially effective antibacterial representatives against a variety of drug resistant Staphylococcus types which are exceptionally hard to treat.
According to Science Daily, a Georgetown University research study discovered that the germ-killing real properties of oregano oil were discovered as efficient as the majority of prescription antibiotics.
Essential oils may penetrate the cellular wall and eliminate viruses, whereas prescription antibiotics can only eliminate germs beyond the cellular wall. One drop of essential oils includes enough molecules to cover every cell in our bodies. Just one molecule can open a receptor site in our bodies and communicate with the DNA to alter cellular function.
There are approximately 40 million trillion particles in one drop of essential oil (that's around 40,000 particles for each cell in the typical body). They are so small, that they enter your body through the skin and go everywhere in your body. Essential oils have an unbelievable ability to get in the body through the lungs and disperse throughout the body in a way that other methods are not able to accomplish.
Essential oils can be diffused, applied topically, added to your food, added to your bath.
Just a few drops of essential oil put on the hands, wrists, feet, abdomen, or lower back may provide relief for a number of discomforts.
Essential oils may remove misinformation in our cells.
Essential oils may have the ability to clean receptor sites on the surface area of cells which permits the correct interaction between cells.
Essential oils may have the capability to remove inaccurate DNA and then to remedy it.
A Japanese research discovered that inhaling essential oils can modulate your sympathetic nervous system activity. Specific oils were discovered to be stimulating, while others were discovered to be calming.
For example, according to Dr. Mercola:.
Black pepper, fennel, and grapefruit oil triggered a 1.5-to 2.5-fold boost in supportive nervous system activity (as determined by a boost in systolic blood pressure).
Rose and patchouli oil resulted in a 40 percent reduction in understanding nervous system activity.
Pepper oil induced a 1.7-fold boost in plasma adrenaline concentration, while increasinged oil caused adrenaline to stop by 30 percent.
Other oils have actually been revealed to measurably lower tension hormones-- breathing in lavender and rosemary were shown to minimize cortisol levels.25.
When buying essential oils, keep in mind that they are not the like synthetic scent oils, which most of the times are not safe to make use of on the skin. Pure essential oils are natural.
Many oils likewise need to be weakened with a "carrier oil" such as coconut oil which serves as a base to include a few drops of essential oils to.
Always use a carrier oil when using essential oils on babies and kids since their skin is far more sensitive to the effects.
I encourage you ti follow the below links. You will be shocked at the amount of science behind the efficacy of essential oils!
If you do some research into the Royal English Archives, you'll discover an interesting little bit. It's a recipe for "thieves' oils." So the story goes: In the 17th century, when all Europe was in the thrust of the Black Plague, a small band of marauding burglars appeared immune to the disease. They would get in the homes of Black Plague victims and have no fear of touching the bodies as they searched for fashion jewelry and money. The King demanded to know their secret.
Their trick had to do with the oils they rubbed on their bodies. Since their household was from a long lineage of apothecaries, they had understanding about ways to utilize oils medicinally and prophylactically versus condition. The King got the precise solution they were making use of against Black Plague and this protected his whole family from the plague.
Today we consider essential oils as simple enjoyable additions to a relaxing massage. However in olden days, some cultures valued oils much more than gold because their powerful recovery buildings were understood.
Essential oils have the exact same function in the plant as blood has to the human. When you cut yourself, blood comes out of the cut. The blood cleans the injury and kills germs so that regrowth of the tissue can start. Likewise, when you cut a plant, resin, or the oil of the plant, is released.
Blood is a transporter. It carries nutrients to the cells. Oxygen is the constituent of blood that provides the blood through the cell walls. When oxygen is taken out of the blood, the cells mutate and emit a harmful gas. This, then, develops a host condition that will certainly reproduce illness. So, too, with plants. Oils act as the defense system in plants.
These oils oxygenate the plant and support nutrients, vital aspects and chemical constituents to every cell in the plant. They contain each of the plant's healing nutrients including trace minerals, vitamins, hormones, amino acid precursors and other components. They give the plant the ability to damage infections, fend off infestations, initiate and maintain development and repair work structural damage. The essential oil of the plant is literally the life force of the plant.
When essential oils are applied to human skin, they lug the same recovery force as they do to the plant. Because they themselves carry such a high concentration of oxygen, they likewise produce in the human system the greatest level of oxygenating molecules of any compound on Earth. Because the oils are so extremely concentrated, they are at least 50 times more therapeutically powerful than the plant itself or herbs made from the plant.
Essential oils detoxify the body. Oxygen pushes unwanted chemicals out of the cell. Typical cell function and balance is established just when there suffices oxygen.
The absorbability of essential oils into the human system is unsurpassed. If you are deficient in oxygen, your cell membranes will certainly begin to thicken. When this takes place, oxygen is not able to obtain its nutrients through this thick wall. You may have been eating all the dietary food on the planet, but if the blood can not get the nutrients into the cell, you may have well-nourished blood however you won't have well-nourished cells. Essential oils are soluble with the lipids in the cell membrane and hence go through the cellular wall.
In addition, essential oils have the capability to alter the electrical frequency of the body. Our bodies are electrical. So is everything around us, including our tv, our lights and our microwave. The distinction between us and our electrical devices is that we have a harmonic, meaningful frequency whereas home appliances operate at incoherent, chaotic frequencies. Our appliances have the ability to fracture the frequency at which we run.
We understand that the body awake averages a frequency of 62-72 Hz. Illness sets in when the frequency drops. The frequency of the body drops when the body comes into contact with elements that have lower frequencies: processed food, canned or otherwise denatured food, drugs as well as synthetic vitamins.
Research study has actually shown that simply holding a cup of coffee in your hand can drop your frequency (most likely through the scent which, as we will certainly see, has a more effective result on us than any of us would envision).
The electrical frequency of essential oils ranges in between 52 and 320 Hz. They have the highest frequency of any substance understood to guy. Due to the fact that they are living compounds, their frequency is harmonic with the human frequency.
When essential oils enter contact with our bodies, the frequency of our bodies ends up being raised to a degree so that we end up being unwelcoming hosts to pathogenic organisms.
Essential oils can be applied directly to the skin. Within 21 minutes of being positioned anywhere on the body, essential oil will penetrate every cell within the body. We rub our bodies with oils as certain medicines.
Simply breathing in the fragrance of essential oils is a powerful therapist. The recovery starts in the brain. There are 800 million nerve endings in the nose that spot odors. The nerve from the olfactory bulb extends back toward the mid-brain then on to the pituitary and pineal glands and finally to the amygdala.
You can daily choose fresh ylang ylang flowers, eucalyptus, orange, mint, lemongrass or lemon leaves and whatever natural herbs meet your health requires at the minute. We squash these plants in our hands and just breathe in. We are taking in the scent of the essential oil as it exudes from the plant, just as blood oozes from our skin when we are cut.
Essential oils can likewise be diffused in the air. Research study has actually revealed that oils can eliminate most air-born microbes. A French research study colonized 210 various microbes; within 30 minutes of misting the air with a mix of oils, just 4 colonies remained alive. You can mist your air with the fragrance of an essential oil by merely placing a couple of drops of oil-- 10 to 15-- in a regular plant water mister diluted with some water.
Enough research study has actually been done that we now have a lot of information on what conditions are influenced by which essential oils.
Peppermint may alleviate nausea, throwing up, fever and soothes indigestion.
Ylang ylang may reduce hypertension and high blood pressure. Bergamot is believed to work for insect bites, cold sores, sore throat and thrush.
Clove is among 3 essential oils where no germs, virus or fungis can live. It is utilized frequently in European hospitals.
We likewise think that the therapeutic effect of food supplements and natural herbs is greatly improved when essential oils are part of the formula.
When herbs and food supplements are prepared for sale, they are dehydrated. This dehydration launches 90 percent of the essential oil of the plant. Without the oil, the majority of the life force of the plant has been vaporized out.
We feel that this is one reason why herbs made use of today are less reliable than when our ancestors used to just go to the fields and pick what they needed. When the essential oil is reestablished into the supplement, you are guaranteed that the nutrients will certainly reach the cellular level in your body.
Flavoring your lemonade with lavender is a great way to utilize the amazing medicinal properties of lavender. Lavender is a wonderful aromatic herb that calms the senses.
Pure lavender oil is an incredible essential oil to use for your own health and wellness. It’s among the gentlest of essential oils, but also one of the most powerful, making it a favorite of households for the healing properties and uses of lavender essential oil. Lavender oil has a chemically complex structure with over 150 active constituents, which explains its effectiveness at helping with a lot of health ailments. Lavender oil possesses amazing anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, antidepressant, antiseptic, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antispasmodic, analgesic, detoxifier, hypotensive, and sedative properties.
Florida researchers have found that lavender oil benefits include reducing anxiety and lowering pulse rates in nursing students taking stressful tests. And in hospital settings, lavender aromatherapy has been demonstrated to decrease pre-surgery distress and to be more relaxing than massage or merely resting.(1)
Lavender essential oil has other properties as well. It has been shown to reduce depression, improve insomnia and ease labor pains. And anecdotal evidence suggests that lavender oil benefits those with headaches, hangovers, sinus congestion and pain relief.
“Much prior research on lavender has focused on the administration of lavender via an olfactory route. The anxiolytic activity of lavender olfaction has been demonstrated in several small and medium-sized clinical trials.46-53 The efficacy of aromatherapy of lavender is thought to be due to the psychological effects of the fragrance combined with physiological effects of volatile oils in the limbic system.54 These calming effects of lavender oil and single constituents may be the origin of the traditional use of lavender. Lavender oil olfaction has been shown to decrease anxiety, as measured by the Hamilton rating scale,51 and can increase mood scores.
The following are selected examples of clinical trials on lavender aromatherapy:
Dunn and colleagues demonstrated anxiolytic activity of lavender oil aromatherapy in patients in intensive care units. Subjects received at least 1 session of aromatherapy with 1% lavender essential oil. Significant anxiolytic effects were noted in the 1st treatment, though 2nd and 3rd treatments did not appear to be as effective.47
Alaoui-Ismaili and colleagues found that the aroma of lavender is considered by subjects to be very pleasant and is correlated with changes in the autonomic nervous system.56
Tysoe and colleagues conducted a study of lavender oil in burner use on staff mood and stress in a hospital setting. A significant number of respondents (85%) believed that lavender aroma improved the work environment following the use of the lavender oil burners.57
Diego and colleagues demonstrated that people receiving lavender oil (10%) olfaction for 3 minutes felt significantly more relaxed and had decreased anxiety scores, improved mood and increased scores of alpha power on EEG (an indicator of alertness), and increased speed of mathematical calculations.58
Lewith and colleagues investigated the effects of lavender aromatherapy on depressed mood and anxiety in female patients being treated with chronic hemodialysis.59 The effects of aromatherapy were measured using the Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAMD) and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety (HAMA). Lavender aroma significantly decreased the mean scores of HAMA, suggesting an effective, noninvasive means for the treatment of anxiety in hemodialysis patients.
Lavender aromatherapy, with or without massage, may also reduce the perception of pain and the need for conventional analgesics in adults and children, though more rigorously controlled trials are needed.60″ (2)
1 cup raw honey
12 cups pure water
1 drop lavender essential oil (where to find)
6 lemons, peeled and juiced
Lavender sprigs for garnish
Mix all ingredients together and chill. Add more water or raw honey if needed.
Other ways you can use Lavender Oil for Anxiety and Headaches
Mix 5 to 6 drops of Lavender essential oil to your bath water if you have dry skin.
Diffuse 10 to 12 drops of Lavender into the air during your workday for natural stress relief.
Add 2 drops of Lavender per ounce of your favorite lightly scented, unrefined organic oil (like almond oil or olive oil) for a body oil with all the benefits of lavender for improving your skin, relaxing your mind, warding off insects or helping you sleep.
Lots of science behind this one folks:
1. Wittchen HU, Hoyer J. Generalized anxiety disorder: nature and course. J Clin Psychiatry. 2001;62 Suppl 11:15-19; discussion 20-21.
2. Ohayon MM, Shapiro CM, Kennedy SH. Differentiating DSM-IV anxiety and depressive disorders in the general population: comorbidity and treatment consequences. Can J Psychiatry 2000;45:166-172.
3. Lawrence AE, Brown TA. Differentiating generalized anxiety disorder from anxiety disorder not otherwise specified. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2009;197:879-886.
4. Bandelow B, Zohar J, Hollander E, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and posttraumatic stress disorders-first revision. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2008;9:248-312.
5. Longo LP, Johnson B. Addiction: Part I. Benzodiazepines—side effects, abuse risk and alternatives. Am Fam Physician. 2000;61:2121-2128.
6. Preskorn SH . Comparison of the tolerability of bupropion, fluoxetine, imipramine, nefazodone, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine. J Clin Psychiatry. 5;56 (Suppl 6):12-21.
7. Trindade E, Menon D, Topfer LA, Coloma C. Adverse effects associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants: a meta-analysis. CMAJ. 1998;159:1245-1252.
8. Andrews G, Carter GL. What people say about their general practitioners’ treatment of anxiety and depression. Med J Aust. 2001;175 (Suppl):S48-S51.
9. Piscopo G. Kava kava: Gift of the islands. Alt Med Rev. 1997;2:355-381 [review].
10. Lehmann EE, Kinzler J, Friedmann J. Efficacy of a special kava extract (Piper methysticum) in patients with states of anxiety, tension and excitedness of non-mental origin. A double-blind placebo-controlled study of four weeks treatment. Phytomedicine 1996;3:113-119.
11. Volz HP, Kieser M. Kava-kava extract WS 1490 versus placebo in anxiety disorders. A randomized placebo-controlled 25-week outpatient trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30:1-5.
12. Warnecke G. Psychosomatic dysfunctions in the female climacteric. Clinical effectiveness and tolerance of kava extract WS 1490. Fortschr Med. 1991;119-122 [in German].
13. De Leo V, la Marca A, Morgante G, et al. Evaluation of combining kava extract with hormone replacement therapy in the treatment of postmenopausal anxiety. Maturitas. 2001;39:185-188.
14. Harrer G, Sommer H. Treatment of mild/moderate depressions with Hypericum. Phytomedicine. 1994;1:3-8.
15. Ernst E. St. John’s wort, an antidepressant? A systemic, criteria-based review. Phytomedicine. 1995;2:67-71.
16. Kasper S, Anghelescu IG, Szegedi A, et al. Superior efficacy of St John’s wort extract WS 5570 compared to placebo in patients with major depression: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center trial [ISRCTN77277298]. BMC Med. 2006;4:14.
17. Vorbach EU, Arnoldt KH, Hübner WD. Efficacy and tolerability of St. John’s wort extract LI 160 versus imipramine in patients with severe depressive episodes according to ICD-10. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl):81-85.
18. Vorbach EU, Hübner WD, Arnoldt KH. Effectiveness and tolerance of the Hypericum extract LI 160 in comparison with imipramine: Randomized double-blind study with 135 outpatients. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7(suppl):S19-23.
19. Philipp M, Kohnen R, Hiller KO. Hypericum extract versus imipramine or placebo in patients with moderate depression: randomized multicenter study of treatment for eight weeks. BMJ. 1999;319:1534-1539.
20. Schrader D. Equivalence of St. John’s wort extract (ZE 117) and fluoxetine: a randomized, controlled study in mild–moderate depression. Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2000;15:61-68.
21. Woelk H. Comparison of St. John’s wort and imipramine for treating depression: Randomized controlled trial. BMJ. 2000;321:536-569.
22. Wheatley D. LI 160, an extract of St. John’s wort versus amitriptyline in mildly to moderately depressed outpatients—controlled six week clinical trial. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(suppl):77-80.
23. Volz HP, Laux P. Potential treatment for subthreshold and mild depression: a comparison of St. John’s wort extracts and fluoxetine. Compr Psychiatry. 2000;41(2 Suppl 1):133-137 [review].
24. Harrer G, Hübner WD, Poduzweit H. Effectiveness and tolerance of the Hypericum extract LI 160 compared to maprotiline: A multicenter double-blind study. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol. 1994;7(suppl 1);S24-S28.
25. Harrer G, Schmidt U, Kuhn U, Biller A. Comparison of equivalence between the St. John’s wort extract LoHyp-57 and fluoxetine. Arzneimittelforschung. 1999;49:289-296.
26. Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St John’s Wort) in major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002;287:1807-1814.
27. Shelton RC, Keller MB, Gelenberg A, et al. Effectiveness of St John’s wort in major depression: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2001;285:1978-1986.
28. Stafford N. Germany may ban kava kava herbal supplement. Reuters, Nov. 19, 2001.
29. Escher M, Desmeules J, Giostra E, Mentha G. Hepatitis associated with kava, a herbal remedy for anxiety. BMJ. 2001;322:139.
30. Kraft M, Spahn TW, Menzel J, et al. Fulminant liver failure after administration of the herbal antidepressant Kava-Kava. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2001;126:970-972 [in German].
31. Strahl S, Ehret V, Dahm HH, Maier KP. Necrotizing hepatitis after taking herbal remedies. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 1998;123:1410-1414 [in German].
32. Russmann S, Lauterburg BH, Helbling A. Kava hepatotoxicity. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135:68-69 [letter].
33. Markowitz JS, Donovan JL, DeVane CL, et al. Effect of St John’s wort on drug metabolism by induction of cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme. JAMA. 2003;290:1500-1504.
34. Greive M. A Modern Herbal. New York, Harcourt, Brace & Co., 1931.
35. Basch E, Foppa I, Liebowitz R, et al. Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller). J Herb Pharmacother. 2004;4(2):63-78.
36. Blumenthal M, ed. Lavender flower. In: The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Austin, TX, American Botanical Council, 1998:159-160.
37. Cavanagh HMA, Wilkinson JM. Biological activities of lavender essential oil. Phytother Res 2002;16;301-308.
38. European Pharmacopoeia, 6th edition, 2008.
39. [No author listed]. Lavadulae Flos. Lavandulae Aetheroleum. (Lavender Flower. Lavender Oil). ESCOP Monographs. The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicine Products, 2nd ed. Supplement. New York and Stuttgart, Thieme, 2009:147-156.
40. Aoshima H, Hamamoto K. Potentiation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes by perfume and phytoncid. Biosc Biotechnol Biochem 1999; 63:743-748.
41. Lis-Balchin M, Hart S. Studies on the mode of action of the essential oil of lavender. Phytother Res 1999;13(6):540-542.
42. Elizabetsky E, al Mje. Effects of linalool on glutamatergic system in the rat cerebral cortex. Neurochem Res 1995;20:461-465.
43. Re L, Barocci S, Sonnino S, et al. Linalool modifies the nicotinic receptor-ion channel kinetics at the mouse neuromuscular junction. Pharmacol Res. 2000;42:177-182.
44. Tisserand R, Balacs T. Essential oil safety. A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Harcourt 1999: Glasgow.
45. Buchbauer G, Jirovetz L, Jager W, Dietrich H, Plank C. Aromatherapy: evidence for sedative effects of the essential oil of lavender after inhalation. Z Naturforsch C. 1991; 46:1067-1072.
46. Buckle J. Aromatherapy. Nurs Times. 1993;89:32-35.
47. Dunn C, Sleep J, Collett D. Sensing an improvement: An experimental study to evaluate the use of aromatherapy massage and periods of rest in an intensive care unit. J Adv Nursing. 1995;21:34-40.
48. Hardy M, Kirk-Smith MD, Stretch DD. Replacement of drug treatment for insomnia by ambient odour. Lancet 1995;346:701.
49. Hudson R. Nursing: the value of lavender for rest and activity in the elderly patient. Complement Ther Med. 1996;4:52-57.
50. Wolfe N, Herzberg J. Can aromatherapy oils promote sleep in severely demented patients? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 1996;11:926-927.
51. Itai T, Amayasu H, Kuribayashi M et al. Psychological effects of aromatherapy on chronic haemodialysis patients. Psychiatry & Clin Neurosci. 2000;54:393-397.
52. Louis M, Kowalski SD. Use of aromatherapy with hospice patients to decrease pain, anxiety, and depression and to promote an increased sense of well-being. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2002;19:381-386.
53. Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, Johren P, Deecke L. Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office. Physiol Behav. 2005;86:92-95.
54. Xu F, Uebaba K, Ogawa H, et al. Pharmaco-physio-psychologic effect of Ayurvedic oil-dripping treatment using an essential oil from Lavendula angustifolia. J Altern Complement Med. 2008;14(8):947-956.
55. Walsh E, Wilson C. Complementary therapies in long-stay neurology in-patients settings. Nurs Stand. 1999;13:32-35.
56. Alaoui-Ismaïli O, Vernet-Maury E, Dittmar A, Delhomme G, Chanel J. Odor hedonics: connection with emotional response estimated by autonomic parameters. Chem Senses. 1997;22(3):237-248.
57. Tysoe P. The effect on staff of essential oil burners in extended care settings. Int J Nurs Pract. 2000;6:110-112.
58. Diego MA, Jones NA, Field T, et al. Aromatherapy positively affects mood, EEG patterns of alertness, and math computations. Int J Neurosci. 1998;96:217-224.
59. Lewith GT, Godfrey AD, Prescott P. A single-blind, randomized pilot study evaluating the aroma of Lavandula angustifolia, as a treatment for mild insomnia. J Altern Complement Med. 2005;11(4):631-637.
60. Buckle J. Use of aromatherapy as a complementary treatment for chronic pain. Altern Ther Health Med 1999;5:42-51.
61. Bradley BF, Brown SL, Chu S, Lea RW. Effects of orally administered lavender essential oil on responses to anxiety-provoking film clips. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2009;24(4):319-330.
62. Kasper S, Gastpar M, Müller WE, et al. Silexan, an orally administered Lavandula oil preparation, is effective in the treatment of ‘subsyndromal’ anxiety disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Int Clin Psychopharmacol 2010;25:277-287.
63. Woelk H, Schlaefke S. A multi-center, double-blind, randomised study of the Lavender oil preparation Silexan in comparison to Lorazepam for generalized anxiety disorder. Phytomedicine. 2010;17:94-99.
64. Azkhondzadeh S, Kashani L, Fotouhi A, et al. Comparison of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. tincture and imipramine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2003;27(1):123-127.
65. Stange R, Schaper S, Uehleke B, Dienel A, Schlaefke S. Phase II study on the effects of lavender oil (Silexan) in patients with neurasthenia, posttraumatic stress disorders or somatisation disorder. Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 2007;12:46.
66. Tisserand R. Lavender beats benzodiazepines. Int J Aromather. 1988;1:1-2.
67. Woelk H, Kapoula O, Lehr S, Schröter K, Weinholz P. A comparison of Kava special extract WS 1490 and benzodiazepines in patients with anxiety. Healthnotes Review. 1999;6:265-270.
68. Bielski RJ, Bose A, Chang CC. A double-blind comparison of escitalopram and paroxetine in the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005;17(2):65-69.
69. Allgulander C, Hartford J, Russell J, et al. Pharmacotherapy of generalized anxiety disorder: results of duloxetine treatment from a pooled analysis of three clinical trials. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23(6):1245-1252.
70. Hidalgo RB, Tupler LA, Davidson JR. An effect-size analysis of pharmacologic treatments for generalized anxiety disorder. J Psychopharmacol. 2007;21:864-872.
71. Woelk H, Kapoula O, Lehr S, Schröter K, Weinholz P. A comparison of Kava special extract WS 1490 and benzodiazepines in patients with anxiety. Healthnotes Review. 1999;6:265-270.
72. Bielski RJ, Bose A, Chang CC. A double-blind comparison of escitalopram and paroxetine in the long-term treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Ann Clin Psychiatry. 2005;17(2):65-69.
73. Atanassova-Shopova S, Roussinov KS. On certain central neurotropic effects of lavender essential oil. Izv Inst Fiziol. 1970;13;69-77.
74. Leung AY, Foster S. Encyclopedia of Common Natural Ingredients Used in Food, Drugs, and Cosmetics. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1996:339-342.
75. Henley DK, Lipson N, Korach KS, Bloch CA. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils. N Engl J Med. 2007;356:479-485.